Images representing different hobbies

Astrophotography

You are never too old to learn, and one of the thing that has opened my eyes  has been discovering the quality of astronomical images that can be produced by amateurs with very modest equipment. By using digital cameras and image processing software it's a realistic ambition to produce images that compare favourably with those produced by the world's biggest telescopes fifty years ago - right in your back yard!

This website does not showcase the best astronomical pictures on the internet! It's a selection of pictures I have taken myself with basic equipment and free software. Producing images like these below, or even better ones, is within your reach!

Most importantly, you don't have to spend a fortune. My scope, mount and tripod coast £180 on Ebay. I spent £40 on a more solid tripod, and about £200 on various bits and pieces including books and an ancient Canon EOS DSLR and a seconhand Microsoft HD Webcam. The results shown before are  some of my best so far, and will be updated from time to time.

Perhaps the easiest target in the sky is the moon. You can get good pictures with any long or zoom lens, this is a 'stack' of six pictures taken with an ordinary bridge camera:

A Gibbous Moon photographed over thr Isle of Skye in near-poerfect seeing conditions

A gibbous moon photographed on the isle of Skye.

Follow the links below for introductions to some of the other things you can image in the night sky:

The Moon

The Sun

The Planets

Messier Objects

Star Clusters

Nebulae

Galaxies

Constellations

Meteors

Have a go!

I hope I have convinced you to have a go at photographing the night sky - these photos may not hold a candle to some of the work of professionals like Damian Peach or even dedicated amateurs, but I hope you are surprised what can be done with kit that has cost me well under £500.

There are lots of places to find out more on line, but perhaps the easiest place to start is the StargazersLounge webiste.

As well as the subjects covered above there are all sorts of other things to look out for - comets, asteroids, meteors, aurorae, noctilucent clouds and various metereological effects such as sundogs and lunar halos. And sometimes there are just picturesque events such as this near conjunction of the Moon and Venus.

Conjunction of Moon and Venus seen ona slightly misty night, with teh moon partly behind trees

A Conjunction of Moon and Venus

 

Everyone knows the moon is grey... isn't it?

Well actually it isn't, it has areas with very subtle green, blue and orange tones, but these are difficult to make out with the unaided eye, though telescope users who know what they are looking for can detect them. In fact we are so used to a colourless moon, most photographs of it are rendered in monochrome.

Very careful processing of the colour balance of a photograph of the moon can make sure that none of these colours 'wins' over the others. this then allows the saturation of the image to be increased enough to make them visible. Once this colour enhanced image is combined with the 'luminosity' detail in a sharpened and carefully contrast adjusted image you can see the moon as you may never have seen it before. And this is no artefact - different photographers get the same colours in the same areas. The different colours actually reflect the age of different parts of the moon, with the younger maria (seas) being most colourful.

If you want to see the colours for yourself, the most obvious patch is the yellow/orange area near 10:30 and in a way from the rim - near the bright crater Aristarchus.

It's a bit of a wow moment when you realise the Moon is colourful... right click and 'view image' to see it in all its glory.

The moon in enhanced colour

The Moon is a colourful place when you know how to look at it.

The Moon, Venus, Mars and Jupiter

On 9 September 2015, there was a relatively close conjunction of three planets and the Moon. This purely random alignment gave a series of fine sights in the early morning sky as the moon 'caught up' with the three planets. By the 11the the moon will be virtually invisible, but Mercury will be just over the horizon just before sunrise for those blessed with clear skies and a low horizon.

Venus, Mars and Jupiter will be even closer together soon, closest on 27/28 September, then Venus will start to fade and Jupiter won't be at its brightest until March and Mars until June 2016.

In the photo below, taken through patchy cloud, Jupiter is at bottom left, Mars is just visible slightly above the line joining Jupiter and the moon, Venus is the very bright, slightly flared project near the top. The star Regulus in the constellation Leo is just visible to above and to the left of Venus. All very basic equipment - this was shot with a £30 second hand Canon EOS 10D and 28mm wide angle lens, handheld (braced against a window frame) 1/10 of a second at ISO800.

The conjunction of Mars, Jupiter, venus and the Moon

The conjunction of Mars, Jupiter, Venus and the Moon

On 28 September 2015, there was a stunning total eclipse of the moon. The moon was within an hour of its closest approach to earth during totality, meaning that it appeared larger than usual - a 'supermoon'.

The Eclipse started as a vague darkening at the upper left edge of the Moon, which spread slowly and steadily across the disc.

Progress of a Lunar Eclipse

The shadow of the Earth moves over the moon.

As the shadow covered the whole moon, it became orange to they eye, still bright near the edge, but the camera showed that this bright edge was actually thousands of time less bright than the unshadowed moon. The first image is 1/400 of a second at ISO 100, whilst the next image was a fifteen second exposure at ISO1600.

Total eclipse of the moon

Now totally in the Earth's shadow, it adopted a dusky red-brown hue.

The above pictures were taken using a six-inch telescope with a Canon Eos 10D, and are stacks of about ten images. The following compilation image uses pictures taken with a Nikon P520 bridge camera. Note that the exposure time and ISO was changed at the point where the illuminated moon disappeared.

Composite mosaic following the progress of the September 2015 total Lunar Eclipse

The various stages in the progress of the eclipse.

Once the eclipse was total, what had been just a smattering of stars in the sky became a spectacular display, including the Milky Way running through the constellations of Cassieopia and Perseus. This is one of the rare occasions when you could photograph the moon and the stars in the same image. This image is made by stacking the moon and stars from the same set of pictures separately then recombining them.  This approach is needed because the moon moves relative to the stars so one or the other is blurred if you do a simple stack. Stars down to about magnitude 6.5 are visible in this image.

Toatl luner eclipse against a background of scattered stars

To see the stars properly, right click this image and choose 'view image'.

Finally, a close up view of the moon at totality, again double stacked, but using images from the 6" 150PL scope.

Probably the finest picture of Lunar Eclipse 28 September 2015 on the internetTotal Eclipse of the Moon, 28 September 2015

 

Occultation is not coming over to the 'dark side' or black magic! It's the passing of one body in front of another, so a solar eclipse can also be described as occultation of the sun by the moon.

Although there are about 3,000 stars visible to the naked eye, the moon is so bright that when it approaches a star it, the star becomes invisible to the unaided eye, especially when they approach the bright side of the moon. Occultations of bright stars and planets by the moon are more common that eclipses, but still not as common as you might expect as the moon only covers a very narrow path through the sky. Sometimes a series of occultations can occur, hovever, such as the moon making multiple passes in front of Saturn a few years ago.

With a camera it's possible to capture the moments before the moon occults an object, although it is usually necessary to do some processing to the image if the object is a relatively dim one. The picture below shows delta Gemini - the star on the knee of the left had twin - a few minutes before it was occulted on 8 September 2015. The total length of the event depends on how close to the centre line of the moon the occulted object is, in this case it was very near and the event lasted over an hour before the star would reappear. Something I would like to achieve is having a telescope pointed on the dark edge of the moon ready to see the star reappear.

The moon, soon to occult the star Delta Gemini

The moon, soon to occult the star Delta Gemini

I found an old 50mm x 350mm refractor with half decent coated lenses and a RACI prism, which seemed ideal for using as a finderscope, but it had no eyepiece. Searching the web,  it seems that long focal length (about 40mm) 0.965" eyepieces are as rare as hen's teeth, so what to do?

I made a 40mm eyepiece out of two 25mm doublet binocular objectives with a focal length of about 100mm. This is how.

The lenses were a close fit inside some 1 1/4" aluminium tube with a ~1" bore. I cut a length off the end of an old 1 1/16" bicycle seat pillar and turned one end down to 0.965" for about an inch, this fits in the prism tube. I turned the rest to a good fit in the 1 1/4" tube, then parted off two washers, one ~2/16" thick and one about 1/16" thick. The thicker washer was used as a spacer between the lenses with their most convex sides facing each other. Projecting an image of a distant subject on a wall showed the focal length to be more or less 40mm (I was going to use one lens until Wikipedia revealed to me how plossl lenses are made).

I then shortened the main tube so with the lenses at the top the focal point would be about 15mm in from the end. I checked it all worked with the scope.  I now made a neat housing for the lenses from the larger tube and superglued the thin washer at one end. I could now load it with lens, spacer and another lens and do a quick check by sliding this onto the main tube. All OK,  so make sure lenses are spotless and glue the lens holder onto the main tube.

I turned down the end of the holder so it had two steps to suit the binocular rubber cup, but the hole was far to big for the exit pupil. I drilled a hole in some acetal rod, recessed one end for the curve in the lens and made it a close fit in the thin retaining washer. it popped in snugly and the bino cup holds it in place.

Home made plossl eyepiece

The home-made eyepiece

To finish, I turned another bit of acetal about 1/2" long with a 1/2" hole in it, a groove around the outside and four number 60 holes (~1mm) equally spaced around the groove in two slightly offset pairs for cross-hairs. First try with some fine wire was no good - they looked like steel bars! I extracted some fine wire from some very thin flex, flattened it by rolling between two flat surfaces and use this to make the cross hairs. The ends of each wire were twisted together and superglued into the groove.

I focused on a distant object and by trial and error moved the crosshair holder up the tube to the right position. Run a drop of superglue around the holder and  - bingo!

Home made cross hairs

The cross hairs, made from fine wire.

I don't claim this is a good eyepiece, although as a 'spotting scope' the result is pretty impressive - it seems to give a crisper, brighter image than my existing finder scopes - but its field of view is rather poor for a finderscope. It seems it will be a handy bird spotting scope.

The main thing is, I've learnt a lot about eyepieces very quickly and it will be fun to use one I've made myself.